Opening Statement by Abdoulaye Mar Dieye at the Oslo Launch of Report on Journey to Extremism in AfricaSep 15, 2017
UNDP Launch of Journey to Extremism in Africa: Drivers, Incentives and the Tipping Point for Recruitment
Opening Statement by Mr. Abdoulaye Mar Dieye
UN Assistant Secretary-General, Assistant Administrator and Regional Director for Africa, UNDP
Oslo, 15 September 2017
Ms. Laila Bokhari, State Secretary, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Ladies and Gentlemen,
I am happy to be here, in Norway, the happiest country in the world, to launch our seminal report on “Journey to extremism in Africa: Drivers, Incentives and the Tipping Point for Recruitment”.
Norway has been systematically leading the world in terms of human development. Its generosity and its phenomenal support to international development cooperation remains legendary. Norway is also a country with foresight. It has put in place an “Action Plan against Radicalization and Violent Extremism”. And I am convinced that as we can learn from Norway on human development at large, lessons can also be shared on how we can together address one the greatest global and local threats to human development, namely violent extremism.
Our involvement, as UNDP, in preventing violent extremism, is dictated by three main reasons:
- First, we have seen violent extremism seriously stunt growth and development in Africa, after a brilliant economic renewal since the start of the millennium.
- Second, we have observed that the responses to violent extremism, so far, have been heavily tilted towards military and security operations; and with limited effectiveness.
- Third, we, like all other development practitioners have seen our interventions lacking of perspicacity, due to an absence of a cohesive frame work, to guide our responses.
The “Journey to Extremism” is an integral part of our UNDP Africa Regional Programme on “Preventing and Responding to Violent Extremism, through a development approach” which we launched two years ago. With this initiative, we embarked on an enquiry into the economics and the political economy of violent extremism in Africa, not only to understand the root causes of such a perverse phenomenon, but also to frame a structured model, grounded on empiricism, to guide policy and programmatic responses and gauge their effectiveness and impact.
As you will see in the presentation that will follow, the report illustrates a series of findings with the central message being that “where there is injustice and desperation, violent extremism ideologies present themselves as a challenge to the status quo and a form of escape”. This is then a validation of Nobel Laureate Desmond Tutu’s assertion that "external circumstances such as poverty and a sense of grievance and injustice can fill people with resentment and despair to the point of desperation."
The report also debunks some myths. It shows that although religion may feature prominently in the factors that pull people to join violent extremist groups, the level of religious literacy is very low, almost nonexistent, amongst those most vulnerable to recruitment. This finding challenges the rising Islamophobia rhetoric that has intensified in the search for effective responses to violent extremism. It shows that fostering greater understanding of religion, may be a key resource for preventing violent extremism. This resonates loudly with Nobel laureate Ely Wiesel’s contention that “Education is the way to eliminate terrorism”; but he meant education largo-sensu, including developing and communicating a potent counter-narrative to the extremism rhetoric; and de-constructing the teaching of evil ideologies.
The report illustrates that where the social contract is weak, where citizens’ confidence in government and institutions is limited, where relations within and between communities are fractured, then the resilience to violent extremism is low. This calls for setting up a form of governance that is inclusive and participatory, particularly, and I underline, at the community level and at the periphery and borders areas, which very often are ungoverned spaces neglected in terms of development investments.
The greatest innovation of this report, is to provide, for the first time, an algorithm depicting the trajectory of a potential or likely violent extremist, using an econometric model and descriptive analysis, grounded on surveys with real actors, and on empirical data, with a probability attached to each step of that journey, and with a determination of the possible point of bifurcation, “the Tipping Point”. We have then a solid framework to guide responses.
In presenting the results of this study, we will also share the “Stories of Survivors to violent extremism in sub-Saharan Africa”. They are moving individual testimonies. They seek to shed light on, and amplify the voices of those who often suffer in silence. Theirs are stories of resilience, perseverance and the triumph of humanity, as they are rebuilding their lives. The survivors' diverse religious, ethnic and national backgrounds highlight that Violent Extremism is a shared burden, and one that humanity, as a whole, must respond to. Their stories also inspire the policy recommendations of this report. Here, let me thank Malin Fezehai, Jessica Benko, and Ahmed Farah. They have been phenomenal in producing such an anthology of masterpieces!
The “Journey to Extremism Study”, along with its attendant report on the “Story of Survivors” provide guidance on the set of policies and programmes that could address the scourge of violent extremism. They include: delivering on global human rights commitments, reinvigorating state legitimacy through improved governance and accountability, connecting PVE with peacebuilding and sustainable development frameworks, coordinating national, regional and global responses to violent extremism, strengthening the vertical and horizontal social contract, investing massively on education and youth employment, and ensuring that macroeconomic policies, the national budget, public expenditures and Official Development Aid (ODA) are PVE- sensitive.
In the report, we further develop these policies and programme responses. It is our ambition to elaborate them into implementable action points. I invite you all to join us in the next journey… Defeating the allure and growth of Violent Extremism armed with the right policies and programmes.
I thank you.